Illnesses are attributed to natural forces and conditions.
- Init, lamig, at pasma
- This is similar with the ancient Greek concept humoral pathology.
- The belief that an imbalance in one or more of one of the four humors (blood, yellow bile, black bile, phlegm) leads to illness.
- The belief that being exposed to extreme cold (lamig) right after being exposed to extreme heat (init) or vice versa can lead to tremors (pasma)
- The belief that direct exposure to electric fans or air conditioners causes muscle pains and pneumonia.
- Singaw ng lupa
- The belief that hot ground hit by cold rain will lead to illnesses such as headaches.
Illnesses attributed to the intentional intervention of a sensate agent which can be supernatural or human. The intervention of the sensate agent is intentional.
- The belief that a disease is inflicted by an environmental spirit.
- This is an animistic society‟s way of trying to make sense of what is different.
- The belief that a disease is inflicted by a ghost that is not necessarily malevolent ot necessarily malevolent but still believed to ca
- The belief that an entity from a parallel and supernatural world cause a disease.
- These entities include kapre, tikbalang, dwende, diwata,
- The belief that God causes an illness because you have done something bad, also known as divine retrbution.
- This is promoted by the Catholic hierarchy to some extent.
- Sins of the forefathers can cause illness in future generations.
- The belief that aswang, a creature that consumes human and animal flesh, can cause a disease.
- Kulam at barang
- The belief someone can cause you harm even at a distance.
- This is common in societies where the justice system is weak and in polygamous societies.
- Kulam represents the lack of trust in society.
- Kontra kulam treatments can delay and hamper medical treatment.
Illnesses result as an automatic consequence of some acts or experiences of the person. One becomes ill without doing anything and it is not caused by a supernatural being.
- The belief that a disease occurred when the soul couldn’t return to the body.
- The belief that this is the way things are meant to be and you can’t do anything to change your fate.
- The belief that counteracting the effect of a compliment on a baby which causes stomach aches.
- This comes from the Filipino value of modesty.
- The belief that one increases risks by going to bed right after a full meal, has nightmares, and might even die if unable to regain control of his body.
- Victims are supposed to wiggle a toe or finger to regain that control.
- People who are susceptible are also advised not to sleep alone because if they have an attack, someone should be around to wake him up.
- The belief that first trimester conception leads to cravings.
- The belief that the features of the fetus can be shaped by a person the mother interacts with during conception.